The most immediate complications of FGM are:





The above are the most serious consequences of FGM, and research has found these are more common with type III. 31 The procedure can cause hospitalisation and even death. The CEMACE report in 2007 both directly and indirectly attributed the deaths of 4 women to FGM. 32

 severe pain

The procedure involves the cutting of extremely sensitive nerve endings, often without the use of anaesthesia, Type III operations take longer as they are more extensive, therefore the pain is intensified in these cases. In research, severe pain is one of the most commonly reported complications following FGM. 24


After multiple use of contaminated instruments.

 other complications:

Fractured limbs due to force of restraint.
Painful micturition due to oedema and tissue trauma.